Waiting for the End? Apocalypticism, Heresies, Pax Dei and Invasions Around Anno Domini 1000. – VTU Review: Studies in the Humanities and Social Sciences. – Veliko Tarnovo : St. Cyril and St. Methodius University Press, 2017, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 9–18. Print ISSN 2603-3070 COBISS.BG-ID - 1284596452
The article aims at millenarian and apocalyptic attitudes and expectations around Anno Domini1000. Despite the fact that a number of written sources have painted a vivid picture of apocalyptic and millenarian sentiments, no answer has been provided to the question of the root cause of such sentiments,that is, the factors that gave rise to them on the eve of,andfollowing,Anno Domini 1000. The author argues that the outburst of millenarian and apocalyptic moods was just “the tip of the iceberg” of the mass insecurity and fear which had been around for generations and wererecorded by some chroniclers. The uncertainty and fear resultedfrom foreign invasions, rising anarchy and the lack of strong authority and order in most of Western Europe.Thereforethe question of apocalyptic sentiments can be approached not in terms of spiritual and religious attitudes, but as a desperate outburst of fear.The author concludes that instead of the popular name “Time of The End,” the decades around 1000 AD could be defined as “Time of Fear.”The fear in question operated at both the personal and social levels and concerned souls and bodies alike.
Keywords: millenarianism, apocalypticism, Anno Domini 1000, Pax Dei, Treuga Dei, heresies, Viking invasions, Saracen invasions, Magyar invasions.