Topos „jądra ciemności” w literaturze
Polonistyka wobec wyznań współczesności, t.I, V kongres Polonistyki Zagranicznej, Brzeg-Opole, 10-13 lpica, 2012, Opole, 2014, 470-482, ISBN 978-83-7395-641-4
The Topos of "Heart of Darkness" in Literature
The present text is based on the idea of the open literary plot of “Belgian Congo”, which Joseph Conrad defines as the place of meeting the “heart of darkness”. The “Heart of darkness” is a topos that acquires universal and symbolic meaning and can be redeemed from the limits of its original historical and geographical prototype which inspired Conrad’s immortal work (the latter is itself highly symbolic, multi- and quasi-discursive). In our case, we are not concerned with the autonomous significance of this topos, but are preoccupied with the effect of the complex literary phenomenology tightly linked with a particular African country and its lifetime. A landmark event in the latter is the precedent of Belgian colonialism dated back to the time of Leopold the Second’s rule. It triggers the critical responses of the Irish journalist and British consul Roger Casement and the Polish-born English writer Joseph Conrad. In this frame of thoughts, Conrad’s Congo cycle sets the beginning of a “will-be continued file” – a sequence of texts by a number of prominent writers who produced their versions of the Congo case. The list includes the author of geographical essays on the “dark continent” Henry Stenley Morton (an initially idealized figure by Conrad and Casement), André Gide (Conrad’s former friend and translator), Arthur Conan Doyle, Mark Twain, the Polish journalist of the 1930s Kazimierz Nowak, Cuban revolutionary Che Guevara, last century’s journalist Ryszard Kapuściński, Belgian Nobel laureate Hugo Claus with „De Geruchten”, the Peruvian journalist Mario Vargas Liosa, whose book „El sueno del Celta, published in 2010, “refreshes” the “Congo file” in a distinctive manner.
Heart of Darkness, Belgian Congo, Henry Stenley Morton, Joseph Conrad, Roger Casement, Arthur Conan Doyle, Mark Twain, André Gide, Kazimierz Nowak, Ryszard Kapuściński, Che Guevara Hugo Claus, Mario Vargas Liosa