Жените във викингските общности на територията на Англия (ІХ–средата на ХІ век) [Women in the Viking Communities in the Territory of England from the 9th to the Middle of the 11th Century]
// Викингите – мореплаватели, откриватели, създатели. Материали от Международна конференция, проведена в СУ „Св. Климент Охридски”, 15–17 май 2000 / Елизария Рускова. – София: „Балкан Прес” АД, 2001, с. 310-319. ISBN 954–428–217–3.
This article aims to characterize the status of women in the Viking communities that existed in the territory of contemporary England during the 9th, 10th and the first half of the 11th c. The study is based on information gathered from written sources dating back to the same epoch.
Though fragmentary, the evidence from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives good reason to conclude that women became members of the Viking communities in Britain as a result of migrations, intermarriages, and as offspring of such marriages. This makes it difficult to specify the real percentage of women of Scandinavian birth in those communities.
Combining as far as possible Germanic tribal traditions and the demands of Christianity and the Church, the law codes of King Æthelred and King Canute aimed to establish order in a restless and mobile society of people of Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian origin. Women in the Viking communities in England confronted with great changes. On the one hand, they obtained the protection of the King and the Church – institutions that endeavoured to pacify society and worked for the establishment of strict Christian rules in matrimony that would guarantee the security and the providing for women in the vicissitudes of life. But on the other hand, the Viking women had to accept the Christian ideal of woman as a virtuous wife, entirely devoted to the family and the household and never expected to show the courage and the enthusiasm of the female companions of the Vikings in their dangerous and adventurous lives.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Viking communities in Britain, the law code of King Æthelred, the law code of King Canute